Positioning algorithms for RFID-based multi-sensor indoor/outdoor positioning techniques

Zhu, M 2011, Positioning algorithms for RFID-based multi-sensor indoor/outdoor positioning techniques, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Mathematical and Geospacial Sciences, RMIT University.

Document type: Thesis
Collection: Theses

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Title Positioning algorithms for RFID-based multi-sensor indoor/outdoor positioning techniques
Author(s) Zhu, M
Year 2011
Abstract Position information has been very important. People need this information almost everywhere all the time. However, it is a challenging task to provide precise positions indoor/outdoor seamlessly. Outdoor positioning has been widely studied and accurate positions can usually be achieved by well developed GPS techniques. However, these techniques are difficult to be used indoor since GPS signals are too weak to be received. The alternative techniques, such as inertial sensors and radio-based pseudolites, can be used for indoor positioning but have limitations. For example, the inertial sensors suffer from drifting problems caused by the accumulating errors of measured acceleration and velocity and the radio-based techniques are prone to the obstructions and multipath effects of the transmitted signals. It is therefore necessary to develop improved methods for minimising the limitations of the current indoor positioning techniques and providing an adequately precise solution of the indoor positioning and seamless indoor/outdoor positioning.

The main objectives of this research are to investigate and develop algorithms for the low-cost and portable indoor personal positioning system using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based multi-sensor techniques, such as integrating with Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Inertial Navigation System (INS) and/or GPS. A RFID probabilistic Cell of Origin (CoO) algorithm is developed, which is superior to the conventional CoO positioning algorithm in its positioning accuracy and continuity. Integration algorithms are also developed for RFID-based multi-sensor positioning techniques, which can provide metre-level positioning accuracy for dynamic personal positioning indoors. In addition, indoor/outdoor seamless positioning algorithms are investigated based on the iterated Reduced Sigma Point Kalman Filter (RSPKF) for RFID/MEMS INS/low-cost GPS integrated technique, which can provide metre-level positioning accuracy for personal positioning. 3-D GIS assisted personal positioning algorithms are also developed, including the map matching algorithm based on the probabilistic maps for personal positioning and the Site Specific (SISP) propagation model for efficiently generating the RFID signal strength distributions in location fingerprinting algorithms.

Both static and dynamic indoor positioning experiments have been conducted using the RFID and RFID/MEMS INS integrated techniques. Metre-level positioning accuracy is achieved (e.g. 3.5m in rooms and 1.5m in stairways for static position, 4m for dynamic positioning and 1.7m using the GIS assisted positioning algorithms). Various indoor/outdoor experiments have been conducted using the RFID/MEMS INS/low-cost GPS integrated technique. It indicates that the techniques selected in this study, integrated with the low-cost GPS, can be used to provide continuous indoor/outdoor positions in approximately 4m accuracy with the iterated RSPKF.

The results from the above experiments have demonstrated the improvements of integrating multiple sensors with RFID and utilizing the 3-D GIS data for personal positioning. The algorithms developed can be used in a portable RFID based multi-sensor positioning system to achieve metre-level accuracy in the indoor/outdoor environments. The proposed system has potential applications, such as tracking miners underground, monitoring athletes, locating first responders, guiding the disabled and providing other general location based services (LBS).
Degree Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Institution RMIT University
School, Department or Centre Mathematical and Geospacial Sciences
Keyword(s) Personal positioning
Multi-sensor integration
Location based services
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Created: Fri, 15 Apr 2011, 16:23:24 EST by Guy Aron
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