Pain management in Hail region hospitals in Saudi Arabia

Albaqawi, H 2014, Pain management in Hail region hospitals in Saudi Arabia, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Health Sciences, RMIT University.

Document type: Thesis
Collection: Theses

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Title Pain management in Hail region hospitals in Saudi Arabia
Author(s) Albaqawi, H
Year 2014
Abstract Pain is a human experience that affects overall quality of life. Nurses play a crucial role in assessing and managing patients’ pain. Effective pain management requires precise knowledge, attitudes and competent assessment skills. Knowledge deficits and inappropriate attitudes are major contributing factors to the under-treatment of pain. Pain management is a multifaceted problem that may become even more complicated because of cultural variances and differences between patients and nurses. This study aimed to determine nurses’ knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management and to identify possible barriers to achieving optimal pain management in Hail region hospitals in Saudi Arabia.

Sample and methods: This is an explorative, descriptive, mixed-methods study conducted in the Hail region hospitals to identify nurses’ knowledge and attitudes towards pain management. The first phase involved administering a questionnaire to 303 nurses to explore their knowledge and attitudes regarding pain management. The questionnaire used in the study is the ‘Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain’ (KASRP) tool. The second phase involved semi-structured interviews with 28 nurses who had previously completed phase one to further explore their perceived facilitators and barriers to proper pain management. The interviews elicit information on how cultural differences among Saudi national and expatriate nurses might affect the assessment and interpretation of patients’ pain and how it will affect the delivery of effective pain management, as well as identifying the barriers to achieving optimal pain management in Hail region hospitals. Data are analysed using descriptive statistics, measures of variability and inferential statistics, and thematic analysis for qualitative data.

Results: In this study, the average correct response rate to the KASRP questionnaire was 41.75 %, with rates ranging from 5–87 %. The findings indicate inadequate knowledge regarding pain, pain assessment, pain management and pain medications. When analysed using thematic analysis, the qualitative data highlight barriers that affect nurses’ ability to provide effective pain management. These include: language, workload, shortage of staff, lack of education, cultural orientation courses and religious and cultural factors.

Recommendations: Nurses require a greater knowledge base regarding pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in pain managemnt, as well as training to acquire culture competence to care for patients with different cultural backgrounds. This study recommends increased education regarding pain management, as well as an annual assessment of skills for all clinical nurses. Strategies to recruit and retain experienced staff should be implemented.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate problems in nurses’ knowledge and negative attitudes regarding pain and pain management. A lack of knowledge regarding pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions is evident and educational and training programs should be implemented to correct these deficiencies.
Degree Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Institution RMIT University
School, Department or Centre Health Sciences
Keyword(s) nurses knowledge
nurses attitudes
pain assessment
pain management
Saudi Arabia
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Created: Fri, 27 Jun 2014, 14:06:48 EST by Lynne Johns
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