Passion, identity, and the model of Goal-Directed Behaviour in a classical music context

Tong, E 2016, Passion, identity, and the model of Goal-Directed Behaviour in a classical music context, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Economics, Finance and Marketing, RMIT University.

Document type: Thesis
Collection: Theses

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Title Passion, identity, and the model of Goal-Directed Behaviour in a classical music context
Author(s) Tong, E
Year 2016
Abstract Studying the motivational behaviour of classical music concert audiences is timely given that attendance at live classical music concerts in Australia and internationally is not currently a popular entertainment option, with a global trend of aging audiences and declining attendance (Allday, 2012). The aim of this research is to deepen insight into the social-psychological factors that influence the formation of a desire to attend classical music concerts and to better predict people’s positive behavioural responses towards live classical music performances. In so doing, the following three research objectives will be addressed: i) determine whether the inclusion of passion and identity will provide a more robust alternative to the MGB in a classical music context, ii) identify moderators that deepen theoretical underpinnings of the development of goal-directed marketing behaviours, and iii) enhance opportunities for marketing practitioners to foster positive behavioural responses by considering the factors that influence current classical music concert attendance.

Defining ‘motivation’ as a combination of forces that initiate, direct and sustain goal-directed behaviour, the Model of Goal-directed Behaviour (MGB), which incorporates social, physiological, cognitive, philosophical and psychological dimensions, stands as the most current and appropriate model to account for human motivational behaviour.

While the MGB is frequently applied, it has not been applied in a context that evaluates hedonistic activities like attending classical music concerts. Further, it appears that the MGB’s account of desire towards goal achievement is extrinsic in nature. For example, the desire towards dieting behaviour is seen to stem from the external goal of losing weight. This contrasts with the desire to attend classical music concerts, whereby the behaviour of concert attendance is desired as an end in itself without an external goal. Hence, in performing a behaviour for its own sake, one’s desire can be considered to be intrinsic. Therefore, in light of the research gap in applying the MGB to a context that assesses hedonistic value and accounts for intrinsic desire, this study applies an improved version of the MGB – the Model of Passion and Goal-Directed Behaviour (MPGB) – to the context of live classical music concerts to explain attendees’ motivations.

Given the parallels between desire and passion (Linstead & Brewis, 2007) and the unexamined influence of intrinsic desire within the MGB, a more intricate link between desire and passion is thus proposed. That is, as conceptualisations of desire and identity have surfaced in countless definitions of passion, with the construct of passion closely associated with self-defining activities that reflect a person’s identity (Vallerand, 2012), and the MGB’s inability to explain why a particular goal is chosen over others, this study posits an intrinsic, sustaining form of desire expressed in passion.

Therefore, by broadening the MGB to incorporate the constructs of passion and identity and measures of consumer word-of-mouth behaviour (WOM), repurchase behaviour and customer voluntary participation (CVP), the present research developed the MPGB which takes into account intrinsic desires and the significance of goal relevance in influencing intention and behavioural responses, and considers the impact of attitude, subjective norms, anticipated emotions and perceived behavioural control on behavioural loyalty.

As similar research on the MGB has previously been successfully carried out by Perugini and Bagozzi (2001) and Perugini and Conner (2000) using quantitative methods, and as the present research is interested in exploring the contributions of passion and identity within the MGB, a quantitative approach was chosen. A quantitative approach enables faster data collection and enhances insight into arts marketing where qualitative research is more commonly employed. Utilising scales with multiple indicators drawn from high-quality journals of high reliability and construct validity, and adapting where necessary, the design of the questionnaire was based on key theories and previously validated measurement scales in psychology, marketing and performing arts studies identified in the literature review. All constructs were measured using multiple items and seven-point Likert-type scales. Through web-based surveys, a convenient sampling method was chosen for data analysis. Thereafter, common factor analysis and structural equation modelling were employed to test the subsequent hypotheses.

The results revealed that: i) desire is a strong predictor of passion, with attitudes being the strongest predictor of desire; ii) passion is a significant predictor of behavioural responses, most strongly predicting WOM, followed by repurchase behaviour and CVP; iii) identity is an important predictor of both desire and passion (it has a stronger influence on passion) and also has the strongest indirect influence on all three behavioural responses; and iv) the inclusion of passion and identity demonstrates a more robust alternative to the MGB in a classical music context. In explaining 25.8%, 23.3% and 5.5% more variance for WOM, repurchase behaviour and CVP, respectively, the MPGB clearly outperforms the MGB.

More important, however, was this study’s discovery that intention becomes non-significant when passion is added to the model. This suggests the possibility of bias in the intention–behavioural outcome relationship in the MGB; validates that intrinsic desire exists apart from extrinsic desire so that, in the MPGB, desire consists of both intrinsic and extrinsic dimensions leading to two manifestations of desire – passion from intrinsic desire and extrinsic desire from intention; and emphasises passion as an indispensable construct. With intention becoming non-significant when passion is included in the model, passion, not intention, is evidently the critical component predicting classical music consumers’ behavioural responses.

Basic psychological needs, however, did not moderate classical music concert attendance, suggesting that needs fulfilment might become an outcome in the context of enjoyable leisure consumption while it functions as a moderating variable for task-related and negative forms of behaviour. In this regard, as desire more strongly predicted passion for people with higher levels of needs fulfilment than those with a lower level of needs fulfilment, attendees’ enjoyment of classical music and their desire to attend more concerts are perceived to enhance their passion for classical music, leading to higher levels of needs fulfilment. Age, socioeconomic status and past behaviour had significant moderating effects, thus leading to key implications for marketing managers of classical music organisations.

Overall, marketing managers, music event managers and public sector organisations involved in arts policy-making will benefit by employing the MPGB in their marketing strategies. As the low age and low SES group’s desire to attend classical music concerts is influenced by attitudes, perceived behavioural control and sense of identity, while the influence of subjective norms clearly impacted the high age and high SES groups; and identity and perceived behavioural control were influential factors for the high past behaviour group, marketing strategies could thus be specifically developed to incorporate these noteworthy constructs. Our study has shown that, by engendering favourable attitudes towards classical music among consumers, providing them with a sense of personal control over their decision to attend concerts, and helping them develop a sense of identity as a classical music concert attendee, consumers’ positive behavioural responses towards live classical music performances will be encouraged. In light of the evident impact of passion on positive consumer responses, our study has paved the way for passion-based marketing, so that future marketing strategies should generate within consumers an autonomous liking and valuing of classical music, and a sense of self-importance related to classical music.

Degree Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Institution RMIT University
School, Department or Centre Economics, Finance and Marketing
Keyword(s) Model of Goal-Directed Behaviour
Classical Music
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Created: Mon, 30 May 2016, 09:00:43 EST by Denise Paciocco
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