Nanoscale oxides in catalysis

Kantam, M, Manorama, S, Basak, P, Chintareddy, V and Bhargava, S 2012, 'Nanoscale oxides in catalysis' in K.Ariga (ed.) Manipulation of Nanoscale Materials: An Introduction to Nanoarchitectonics, Royal Society of Chemistry, United Kingdom, pp. 129-164.

Document type: Book Chapter
Collection: Book Chapters

Title Nanoscale oxides in catalysis
Author(s) Kantam, M
Manorama, S
Basak, P
Chintareddy, V
Bhargava, S
Year 2012
Title of book Manipulation of Nanoscale Materials: An Introduction to Nanoarchitectonics
Publisher Royal Society of Chemistry
Place of publication United Kingdom
Editor(s) K.Ariga
Start page 129
End page 164
Subjects Catalysis and Mechanisms of Reactions
Summary Catalysis provides a means of changing the rates and of controlling the yields of chemical reactions to increase the amounts of desirable products from these reactions and reduce the amounts of undesirable ones. The triumph of industrial production relies largely on the strong foundation of heterogeneous catalysis.1-3 Virtually all nitrogen fertilizers are produced from ammonia made utilizing the Haber-Bosch process.4 Since the realization of this ground-breaking discovery, aptly coined as the ''invention of the last century'', wherein the introduction of an iron catalyst accelerated the production of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen gases,5 there has been an explosion in the area of heterogeneous catalysts research. Recent estimates reveal that more than one-third of production and manufacturing processes in all industries worldwide utilize catalysis in one form or another.6,7 According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the worldwide demand for nitrogen-based fertilizer will be 154.2 million tons in 2011, with an expected increase of 7.3 million tons annually. Today, the world faces a variety of challenges in reducing dependence on petroleum reserves, reducing harmful by-products in manufacturing and transportation, remediation of environmental issues, preventing pollution and creating safe pharmaceuticals.8 Catalysis has been the core technology of the chemical industry, oil refineries, conversion of sustainable energy sources and environmental remediation for several decades now. The petroleum, chemical and pharmaceutical industries, which contribute around $500 billion to the gross national product of the United States, rely on catalysts to produce everything from fuels and ''wonder drugs'' to paints and cosmetics.9,10 The reduced emissions of automobiles, the abundance of fresh food and affordable medicines are all made possible by chemical reactions using catalysts, and thus they are a major contributor to a healthy economy.
Copyright notice © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.
DOI - identifier 10.1039/9781849735124
ISBN 9781849734158
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