A combined experimental and numerical study on upper airway dosimetry of inhaled nanoparticles from an electrical discharge machine shop

Tian, L, Shang, Y, Chen, R, Bai, R, Chen, C, Inthavong, K and Tu, J 2017, 'A combined experimental and numerical study on upper airway dosimetry of inhaled nanoparticles from an electrical discharge machine shop', Particle and Fibre Toxicology, vol. 14, no. 1, 24, pp. 1-18.


Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

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Title A combined experimental and numerical study on upper airway dosimetry of inhaled nanoparticles from an electrical discharge machine shop
Author(s) Tian, L
Shang, Y
Chen, R
Bai, R
Chen, C
Inthavong, K
Tu, J
Year 2017
Journal name Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Volume number 14
Issue number 1
Article Number 24
Start page 1
End page 18
Total pages 18
Publisher BioMed Central
Abstract Backgrounds: Exposure to nanoparticles in the workplace is a health concern to occupational workers with increased risk of developing respiratory, cardiovascular, and neurological disorders. Based on animal inhalation study and human lung tumor risk extrapolation, current authoritative recommendations on exposure limits are either on total mass or number concentrations. Effects of particle size distribution and the implication to regional airway dosages are not elaborated. Methods: Real time production of particle concentration and size distribution in the range from 5.52 to 98.2 nm were recorded in a wire-cut electrical discharge machine shop (WEDM) during a typical working day. Under the realistic exposure condition, human inhalation simulations were performed in a physiologically realistic nasal and upper airway replica. The combined experimental and numerical study is the first to establish a realistic exposure condition, and under which, detailed dose metric studies can be performed. In addition to mass concentration guided exposure limit, inhalation risks to nano-pollutant were reexamined accounting for the actual particle size distribution and deposition statistics. Detailed dosimetries of the inhaled nano-pollutants in human nasal and upper airways with respect to particle number, mass and surface area were discussed, and empirical equations were developed. Results: An astonishing enhancement of human airway dosages were detected by current combined experimental and numerical study in the WEDM machine shop. Up to 33 folds in mass, 27 folds in surface area and 8 folds in number dosages were detected during working hours in comparison to the background dosimetry measured at midnight. The real time particle concentration measurement showed substantial emission of nano-pollutants by WEDM machining activity, and the combined experimental and numerical study provided extraordinary details on human inhalation dosimetry. It was found out that h
Subject Numerical Modelling and Mechanical Characterisation
Computational Fluid Dynamics
Environmental Nanotechnology
Nanotoxicology, Health and Safety
Keyword(s) Computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Human upper airways
Inhalation toxicity
Nanoparticles
Particle dosimetry
Particle size distribution
DOI - identifier 10.1186/s12989-017-0203-7
Copyright notice © The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
ISSN 1743-8977
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