Concentrations of legacy and novel brominated flame retardants in indoor dust in Melbourne, Australia: An assessment of human exposure

McGrath, T, Morrison, P, Ball, A and Clarke, B 2018, 'Concentrations of legacy and novel brominated flame retardants in indoor dust in Melbourne, Australia: An assessment of human exposure', Environment International, vol. 113, pp. 191-201.


Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

Title Concentrations of legacy and novel brominated flame retardants in indoor dust in Melbourne, Australia: An assessment of human exposure
Author(s) McGrath, T
Morrison, P
Ball, A
Clarke, B
Year 2018
Journal name Environment International
Volume number 113
Start page 191
End page 201
Total pages 11
Publisher Elsevier
Abstract Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFR) have been used in a range of polymers to inhibit the spread of fires but also have a propensity to migrate out of consumer materials and contaminate indoor dust. In this study, a total of 57 dust samples were collected from 12 homes, eight offices and eight vehicles in Melbourne, Australia and analysed for eight PBDEs (-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183 and -209) and seven NBFRs (PBT, PBEB, HBB, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP, BTBPE and DBDPE) to determine human exposure risks from dust ingestion. Samples were analysed using selective pressurized liquid extraction (S-PLE) and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Legacy and replacement flame retardants were detected in all samples with overall Sigma PBDE concentrations ranging from 120 to 1700,000 ng/g (median 2100 ng/g) and Sigma NBFRs ranging from 1.1 to 10,000 ng/g (median 1800 ng/g). BDE-209 and DBDPE were the dominant compounds in dust samples, followed by congeners associated with commercial Penta-BDE formulations (-47, -99, -100, -153 and -154) and then EH-TBB of the FireMaster 550 and BZ-54 products. Sigma Penta-BDE concentrations were elevated in office samples compared with homes and vehicles, while EH-TBB and BDE-209 measured higher concentrations in vehicles compared with their respective levels in homes and offices. Risk assessment estimates revealed the majority of exposure to occur in the home for both adults and toddlers in the City of Melbourne. Generally, body weight adjusted exposure to PBDEs and NBFRs was predicted to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher for toddlers than adults. Estimated rates of BDE-47, -99, -153 and -209 ingestion were each 2 orders of magnitude or more below the USEPA's prescribed oral reference dose values (RfDs) for typical exposure scenarios. However, exposure rates for BDE-47 and -99 reached as high as 52 and 95% of RfDs, respectively, for adults and 4.4 and 7.4%, respec
Subject Environmental Impact Assessment
Keyword(s) Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
In-House Dust
Risk-Assessment
United-Kingdom
South China
Phase-Out
Polychlorinated-Biphenyls
Organophosphate Esters
Childrens Exposure
Consumer Products
DOI - identifier 10.1016/j.envint.2018.01.026
Copyright notice © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN 0160-4120
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