Cellulose Solubility, Gelation, and Absorbency Compared with Designed Synthetic Polymers

Shanks, R and Martinez Pardo, I 2018, 'Cellulose Solubility, Gelation, and Absorbency Compared with Designed Synthetic Polymers' in Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal (ed.) Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent Hydrogels, Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 1-26.


Document type: Book Chapter
Collection: Book Chapters

Title Cellulose Solubility, Gelation, and Absorbency Compared with Designed Synthetic Polymers
Author(s) Shanks, R
Martinez Pardo, I
Year 2018
Title of book Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent Hydrogels
Publisher Springer International Publishing
Place of publication Cham, Switzerland
Editor(s) Md. Ibrahim H. Mondal
Start page 1
End page 26
Subjects Chemical Characterisation of Materials
Physical Chemistry of Materials
Theory and Design of Materials
Summary Swelling and solubility of polymers, and in particular cellulose, are controlled by interactions, molecular symmetry, chain flexibility, and order/disorder. Theory is used to explain and predict which liquid systems, polymer structures, and chem- ical modifications form gels and polymer solutions. Extension of these principles leads to super-absorbent polymers. Cellulose is not water soluble, though some water systems can dissolve cellulose, particularly alkaline or strongly hydrogen- bonding solutions. Less hydrophilic derivatives such as methyl cellulose dissolve in water; while with increasing substitution with methyl groups, cellulose becomes soluble in organic solvents such as dichloromethane. Sometimes tem- perature can enhance solubility or gelation; alternatively adjusting chemistry through functional group modification to reach an optimum between intermolecular versus solvation interactions will create exceptional changes in absorbency. The solvation power can be increased by adding strongly ionic, hydrogen bonding or acid-base solutes such as lithium chloride, urea, or sodium hydroxide. Synthetic polymers have been designed and commercialized with specific solubility, solution rheology, gelation, and absorbency for many applica- tions. Synthetic water-absorptive polymers begin with the choice of monomer(s), molar mass, and chain architecture. Cellulose is separated with exact structure that can be derivatized, grafted, or modified to change its native resistance to super-absorbency, gelation, or dissolving in water. Molecular modeling and simulation are used to evaluate parameters that will describe super-absorbent character. This review explores and evaluates the chemistry and structural symmetry of celluloses and synthetic polymers, leading to solubility, and gelation leading to super-absorbency. Cellulose is emphasized and compared with synthetic polymers where chemistries are designed and created at all levels of structure.
Copyright notice © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018
Keyword(s) Cellulose
Solubility
Absorbent
Gel
Super-hydrophilic
Super-absorbent
Solubility parameter
Interaction parameter
Critical solution temperature
DOI - identifier 10.1007/978-3-319-76573-0_7-1
ISBN 9783319765730
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