Using two-way fluid-structure interaction to study the collapse of the upper airway of OSA patients

Zhao, M, Barber, T, Cistulli, P, Sutherland, K and Rosengarten, G 2014, 'Using two-way fluid-structure interaction to study the collapse of the upper airway of OSA patients', in Grant P. Steven, Qing Li and Zhongpu (Leo) Zhang (ed.) Proceedings of the 1st Australasian Conference of Computational Mechanics (ACCM 2013), Sydney, Australia, 3-4 October 2013, pp. 275-280.


Document type: Conference Paper
Collection: Conference Papers

Title Using two-way fluid-structure interaction to study the collapse of the upper airway of OSA patients
Author(s) Zhao, M
Barber, T
Cistulli, P
Sutherland, K
Rosengarten, G
Year 2014
Conference name ACCM 2013
Conference location Sydney, Australia
Conference dates 3-4 October 2013
Proceedings title Proceedings of the 1st Australasian Conference of Computational Mechanics (ACCM 2013)
Editor(s) Grant P. Steven, Qing Li and Zhongpu (Leo) Zhang
Publisher Trans Tech Publications
Place of publication Switzerland
Start page 275
End page 280
Total pages 6
Abstract Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder characterized by repetitive collapse of the upper airway (UA) during sleep. Treatment options for OSA include mandibular advancement splints (MAS), worn intra-orally to protrude the lower jaw to stabilize the airway. However not all patients will respond to MAS therapy and individual effects on the upper airway are not well understood. Simulations of airway behavior represent a non-invasive means to understand this disorder and treatment responses in individual patients. The aims of this study was to perform analysis of upper airway (UA) occlusion and flow dynamics in OSA using the fluid structure interaction (FSI) method, and secondly to observe changes associated with MAS usage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained with and without mandibular advance splint (MAS) treatment in a patient known to be a treatment responder. Computational models of the anatomically correct UA geometry were reconstructed for both pre- and post-treatment (MAS) conditions. By comparing the simulation results, the treatment success of MAS was demonstrated by smaller UA structure deformation (maximum 2mm) post-treatment relative to the pre-treatment fully collapsed (maximum 6mm) counterpart. The UA collapse was located at the oropharynx and the low oropharyngeal pressure (-51 Pa to -39 Pa) was induced by the velopharyngeal jet flow (maximum 10 m/s). The results support previous OSA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies by indicating similar UA pressure drop and maximum velocity values. These findings lay a firm platform for the application of computational models for the study of the biomechanical properties of the upper airway in the pathogenesis and treatment of OSA.
Subjects Numerical Modelling and Mechanical Characterisation
Keyword(s) Airway occlusion
CFD
FSI
MAS
MRI
Osa
Upper airway
DOI - identifier 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.553.275
Copyright notice © 2014 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland
ISSN 1660-9336
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