Environmental life-cycle comparisons of steel production and recycling: Sustainability issues, problems and prospects

Yellishetty, M, Mudd, G, Gamage, R and Tharumarajah, A 2011, 'Environmental life-cycle comparisons of steel production and recycling: Sustainability issues, problems and prospects', Environmental Science and Policy, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 650-663.


Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

Title Environmental life-cycle comparisons of steel production and recycling: Sustainability issues, problems and prospects
Author(s) Yellishetty, M
Mudd, G
Gamage, R
Tharumarajah, A
Year 2011
Journal name Environmental Science and Policy
Volume number 14
Issue number 6
Start page 650
End page 663
Total pages 14
Publisher Elsevier
Abstract This paper reports on historical analysis of the steel industry in which crude steel production trends are quantified for the period from 1950 to 2006. On the basis of this analysis, the future production of steel for the world is estimated using regression analysis. The historical analysis shows that the world steel production increased from 187. Mt to 1299. Mt in that period. In addition, the paper also reports on historical (1950-2006) steel scrap consumption and was compared with crude steel and electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production. Since 1950, scrap consumption by steel industry worldwide has been growing at 12% per annum whereas the EAF share of steel production has been increasing at 66% per annum. Furthermore, since 1987 iron ore prices have increased at 24% per annum whereas scrap prices have grown by 13% per annum.From the analysis on environmental benefits of steel recycling, it was established that there are numerous advantages of scrap utilisation. The major environmental benefits of increased scrap usage comes from the very fact that production of one tonne of steel through the EAF route consumes only 9-12.5GJ/tcs, whereas the BOF steel consumes 28-31GJ/tcs and consequently enormous reduction in CO2 emissions. In addition, a discussion on various alloying elements in steel and their presence in residual concentrations in the scrap on steel properties is also presented. Finally, this paper presents a discussion on policy issues that could enhance the use of scrap in steel-making is also presented.
Subject Environmental Engineering not elsewhere classified
Resources Engineering and Extractive Metallurgy not elsewhere classified
Keyword(s) Energy
Iron and steel
Life cycle
Recycling
Residuals and policy
DOI - identifier 10.1016/j.envsci.2011.04.008
Copyright notice © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
ISSN 1462-9011
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