Decreasing ore grades in global metallic mining: A theoretical issue or a global reality?

Calvo, G, Mudd, G, Valero, A and Valero, A 2016, 'Decreasing ore grades in global metallic mining: A theoretical issue or a global reality?', Resources, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1-14.


Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

Title Decreasing ore grades in global metallic mining: A theoretical issue or a global reality?
Author(s) Calvo, G
Mudd, G
Valero, A
Valero, A
Year 2016
Journal name Resources
Volume number 5
Issue number 4
Start page 1
End page 14
Total pages 14
Publisher M D P I AG
Abstract Mining industry requires high amounts of energy to extract and process resources, including a variety of concentration and refining processes. Using energy consumption information, different sustainability issues can be addressed, such as the relationship with ore grade over the years, energy variations in electricity or fossil fuel use. A rigorous analysis and understanding of the energy intensity use in mining is the first step towards a more sustainable mining industry and, globally, better resource management. Numerous studies have focused on the energy consumption of mining projects, with analysis carried out primarily in one single country or one single region. This paper quantifies, on a global level, the relationship between ore grade and energy intensity. With the case of copper, the study has shown that the average copper ore grade is decreasing over time, while the energy consumption and the total material production in the mine increases. Analyzing only copper mines, the average ore grade has decreased approximately by 25% in just ten years. In that same period, the total energy consumption has increased at a higher rate than production (46% energy increase over 30% production increase).
Subject Environmental Engineering not elsewhere classified
Resources Engineering and Extractive Metallurgy not elsewhere classified
Keyword(s) Energy intensity
Energy use
Mining
Ore grade
DOI - identifier 10.3390/resources5040036
Copyright notice © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access Creative Commons Attribution
ISSN 2079-9276
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