Surgery increases cell death and induces changes in gene expression compared with anesthesia alone in the developing piglet brain

Broad, K, Kawano, G, Fierens, I, Rocha-Ferreira, E, Hristova, M, Ezzati, M, Rostami, J, Alonso-Alconada, D, Chaban, B, Hassell, J, Fleiss, B, Gressens, P, Sanders, R and Robertson, N 2017, 'Surgery increases cell death and induces changes in gene expression compared with anesthesia alone in the developing piglet brain', PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 1-15.


Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

Title Surgery increases cell death and induces changes in gene expression compared with anesthesia alone in the developing piglet brain
Author(s) Broad, K
Kawano, G
Fierens, I
Rocha-Ferreira, E
Hristova, M
Ezzati, M
Rostami, J
Alonso-Alconada, D
Chaban, B
Hassell, J
Fleiss, B
Gressens, P
Sanders, R
Robertson, N
Year 2017
Journal name PLoS ONE
Volume number 12
Issue number 3
Start page 1
End page 15
Total pages 15
Publisher Public Library of Science
Abstract This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. In a range of animal species, exposure of the brain to general anaesthesia without surgery during early infancy may adversely affect its neural and cognitive development. The mechanisms mediating this are complex but include an increase in brain cell death. In humans, attempts to link adverse cognitive development to infantile anaesthesia exposure have yielded ambiguous results. One caveat that may influence the interpretation of human studies is that infants are not exposed to general anaesthesia without surgery, raising the possibility that surgery itself, may contribute to adverse cognitive development. Using piglets, we investigated whether a minor surgical procedure increases cell death and disrupts neurodevelopmental and cognitively salient gene transcription in the neonatal brain. We randomly assigned neonatal male piglets to a group who received 6h of 2% isoflurane anaesthesia or a group who received an identical anaesthesia plus 15 mins of surgery designed to replicate an inguinal hernia repair. Compared to anesthesia alone, surgery-induced significant increases in cell death in eight areas of the brain. Using RNAseq data derived from all 12 piglets per group we also identified significant changes in the expression of 181 gene transcripts induced by surgery in the cingulate cortex, pathway analysis of these changes suggests that surgery influences the thrombin, aldosterone, axonal guidance, B cell, ERK-5, eNOS and GABAAsignalling pathways. This suggests a number of novel mechanisms by which surgery may influence neural and cognitive development independently or synergistically with the effects of anaesthesia.
Subject Innate Immunity
Neurology and Neuromuscular Diseases
Paediatrics
DOI - identifier 10.1371/journal.pone.0173413
Copyright notice © 2017 Broad et al.
ISSN 1932-6203
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