Toxicological effects of fungicide mixtures on the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis

VU, H, Keough, M, Long, S and Pettigrove, V 2017, 'Toxicological effects of fungicide mixtures on the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis', Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 2651-2659.


Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

Title Toxicological effects of fungicide mixtures on the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis
Author(s) VU, H
Keough, M
Long, S
Pettigrove, V
Year 2017
Journal name Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume number 36
Issue number 10
Start page 2651
End page 2659
Total pages 9
Publisher John Wiley & Sons
Abstract Approaches to assess the toxicity of mixtures often use predictive models with acute mortality as an endpoint at relatively high concentrations. However, these approaches do not reflect realistic situations where organisms could be exposed to chemical mixtures over long periods at low concentrations at which no significant mortalities occur. The present study investigated chronic effects of 2 common fungicides, Filan® (active ingredient [a.i]) boscalid) and Systhane (a.i. myclobutanil), on the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis at environmentally relevant concentrations under laboratory conditions. Sexually mature amphipods were exposed singly and in combination to Filan (1, 10, and 40 μg a.i./L) and Systhane (3 μg a.i./L) over 28 d. Survival, growth, a wide range of reproduction endpoints, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity were measured at the end of the experiment. Both fungicides had significant independent effects on male growth, sex ratio, and juvenile size. Filan mainly affected female growth and the number of embryos per gravid female, whereas Systhane mainly affected the time for females to become gravid. The combined effects of these fungicides on numbers of gravid females and juveniles were antagonistic, causing a 61% reduction in the number of gravid females and a 77% reduction in the number of juveniles produced at the highest concentrations (40 μg a.i./L of boscalid and 3 μg a.i./L of myclobutanil) compared with the controls. There were no significant effects on survival or GST activity. The present study demonstrated that the effects of mixtures were endpoint dependent and that using a variety of endpoints should be considered for a comprehensive understanding of mixture effects. Also, chronic studies are more informative than acute studies for environmentally relevant fungicide concentrations.
Subject Freshwater Ecology
Keyword(s) Mixture toxicology
Pesticides
Aquatic invertebrates
Reproductive toxicity
DOI - identifier 10.1002/etc.3809
Copyright notice © 2017 SETAC
ISSN 0730-7268
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