Tuning solid catalysts to control regioselectivity in cross aldol condensations with unsymmetrical ketones for biomass conversion

Ponnuru, K, Manayil, J, Cho, H, Osatiashtiani, A, Fan, W, Wilson, K and Jentoft, F 2018, 'Tuning solid catalysts to control regioselectivity in cross aldol condensations with unsymmetrical ketones for biomass conversion', Molecular Catalysis, vol. 458, pp. 247-260.


Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

Title Tuning solid catalysts to control regioselectivity in cross aldol condensations with unsymmetrical ketones for biomass conversion
Author(s) Ponnuru, K
Manayil, J
Cho, H
Osatiashtiani, A
Fan, W
Wilson, K
Jentoft, F
Year 2018
Journal name Molecular Catalysis
Volume number 458
Start page 247
End page 260
Total pages 14
Publisher Elsevier BV
Abstract Several families of catalysts characterized by different types of acid and base sites were developed to steer regioselectivity in the aldol condensation of unsymmetrical ketones. The catalysts were propyl sulfonic-acid (PrSO3H) functionalized SBA-15 with various acid loadings and with or without hydrophobization by octyl groups (Oc); isomorphously substituted BEA zeotypes; and sulfated zirconias with various sulfate loadings. Benzaldehyde and 2-butanone served as test reactants at a temperature of 140 °C. Sulfonic acid-functionalized catalysts preferentially formed branched condensation product and metal-substituted BEA zeotypes selectively formed linear condensation product. Maximum condensation product yields were 65% branched at 98% conversion with the highest site density Oc/PrSO3H/SBA-15 and 76% linear at 94% conversion with Sn-BEA. Sulfated zirconia catalysts were less selective. Product distributions analyzed at different conversions revealed how kinetics and equilibria of addition and dehydration govern regioselectivity. Further observations were: 1. Increasing the acid site density significantly increased the turnover frequency for PrSO3H/SBA-15, suggesting a cooperative effect between adjacent acid sites. 2. Brønsted acid sites catalyzed an undesired side reaction, the cleavage of the branched addition product to β-methyl styrene and acetic acid. This reaction was suppressed by hydrophobizing the surface through octyl co-functionalization. 3. Deactivation upon re-use was generally slight, and Sn-BEA could be fully regenerated by calcination.
Subject Catalysis and Mechanisms of Reactions
Keyword(s) Carbon-carbon coupling
Cross aldol condensation
Ordered mesoporous materials
Reaction pathways
Titanium beta zeolite
DOI - identifier 10.1016/j.mcat.2017.11.005
Copyright notice © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
ISSN 2468-8231
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