Global projection of lead-zinc supply from known resources

Mohr, S, Giurco, D, Retamal, M, Mason, L and Mudd, G 2018, 'Global projection of lead-zinc supply from known resources', Resources, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1-15.

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

Title Global projection of lead-zinc supply from known resources
Author(s) Mohr, S
Giurco, D
Retamal, M
Mason, L
Mudd, G
Year 2018
Journal name Resources
Volume number 7
Issue number 1
Start page 1
End page 15
Total pages 15
Publisher MDPIAG
Abstract Lead and zinc are used extensively in the construction and automotive industries, and require sustainable supply. In order to understand the future availability of lead and zinc, we have projected global supplies on a country-by-country basis from a detailed global assessment of mineral resources for 2013. The model GeRS-DeMo was used to create projections of lead and zinc production from ores, as well as recycling for lead. Our modelling suggests that lead and zinc production from known resources is set to peak within 15 years (lead 2025, zinc 2031). For lead, the total supply declines relatively slowly post peak due to recycling. If additional resources are found, these peaks would shift further into the future. These results suggest that lead and zinc consumers will need to plan for the future, potentially by: seeking alternative supplies (e.g., mine tailings, smelter/refinery slags); obtaining additional value from critical metals contained in lead-zinc ore deposits to counter lower grade ores; identifying potential substitutes; redesigning their products; or by contributing to the development of recycling industries. © 2018 by the authors.
Subject Environmental Science and Management not elsewhere classified
Keyword(s) Lead zinc mining
Peak minerals
Resource depletion
Sustainable mining
DOI - identifier 10.3390/resources7010017
Copyright notice © 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
ISSN 2079-9276
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