Exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic field triggers rapid uptake of large nanosphere clusters by pheochromocytoma cells

Perera, P, Nguyen, T, Dekiwadia, C, Wandiyanto, J, Sbarski, I, Bazaka, O, Bazaka, K, Crawford, R, Croft, R and Ivanova, E 2018, 'Exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic field triggers rapid uptake of large nanosphere clusters by pheochromocytoma cells', International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 13, pp. 8429-8442.


Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

Title Exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic field triggers rapid uptake of large nanosphere clusters by pheochromocytoma cells
Author(s) Perera, P
Nguyen, T
Dekiwadia, C
Wandiyanto, J
Sbarski, I
Bazaka, O
Bazaka, K
Crawford, R
Croft, R
Ivanova, E
Year 2018
Journal name International Journal of Nanomedicine
Volume number 13
Start page 8429
End page 8442
Total pages 14
Publisher Dove Medical Press Ltd.
Abstract Background: Effects of man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF) on living organisms potentially include transient and permanent changes in cell behaviour, physiology and morphology. At present, these EMF-induced effects are poorly defined, yet their understanding may provide important insights into consequences of uncontrolled (e.g., environmental) as well as intentional (e.g., therapeutic or diagnostic) exposure of biota to EMFs. In this work, for the first time, we study mechanisms by which a high frequency (18 GHz) EMF radiation affects the physiology of membrane transport in pheochromocytoma PC 12, a convenient model system for neurotoxicological and membrane transport studies. Methods and results: Suspensions of the PC 12 cells were subjected to three consecutive cycles of 30s EMF treatment with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.17 kW kg(-1), with cells cooled between exposures to reduce bulk dielectric heating. The EMF exposure resulted in a transient increase in membrane permeability for 9 min in up to 90 % of the treated cells, as demonstrated by rapid internalisation of silica nanospheres (diameter d approximate to 23.5 nm) and their clusters (d approximate to 63 nm). In contrast, the PC 12 cells that received an equivalent bulk heat treatment behaved similar to the untreated controls, showing lack to minimal nanosphere uptake of approximately 1-2 %. Morphology and growth of the EMF treated cells were not altered, indicating that the PC 12 cells were able to remain viable after the EMF exposure. The metabolic activity of EMF treated PC 12 cells was similar to that of the heat treated and control samples, with no difference in the total protein concentration and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release between these groups. Conclusion: These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of EMF-induced biological activity in mammalian cells, suggesting a possible use of EMFs to facilitate efficient transport of biomolecules, dyes and tracers, and genetic m
Subject Biological Physics
Nanomaterials
Keyword(s) 18 GHz
Electromagnetic fields
EMFs
Membrane permeability
Microwave
PC 12 neuronal cells
DOI - identifier 10.2147/IJN.S183767
Copyright notice © 2018 Perera et al. Commons Attribution Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License
ISSN 1176-9114
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