Titanium, zirconium resources and production: A state of the art literature review

Perks, C and Mudd, G 2019, 'Titanium, zirconium resources and production: A state of the art literature review', Ore Geology Reviews, vol. 107, pp. 629-646.

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

Title Titanium, zirconium resources and production: A state of the art literature review
Author(s) Perks, C
Mudd, G
Year 2019
Journal name Ore Geology Reviews
Volume number 107
Start page 629
End page 646
Total pages 18
Publisher Elsevier BV
Abstract Recent zircon supply disruptions and the increasing demand for TiO 2 in pigments has focused attention on the adequacy of known and anticipated resources, and the ability of current suppliers to meet future demand. Additionally, there is now a greater focus on the environmental impact of sulfate- and chloride-route pigment production, especially in China. These methods require different types of titanium feedstocks, each having different levels of availability. Despite investigation by various government groups, consultants, and scholars, there remain significant discrepancies in both production and resource assessments. The few publically available studies do not take into account these complexities. Here we review the public sources for information on zirconium and titanium production and resources using Australia as a case study, factors affecting resource availability, the complexity of titanium and zirconium feedstocks, their suitability for end-uses, their commercial properties, supply drivers. We also provide a thorough history of the titanium and zirconium industry, an overview of deposit geology & ilmenite alteration terminology, logistics, mining and processing techniques, as well as an examination of each of the major co-products of titanium and zirconium extraction.
Subject Environmental Engineering not elsewhere classified
Keyword(s) Ilmenite
Sustainable mining
DOI - identifier 10.1016/j.oregeorev.2019.02.025
Copyright notice © 2019 Elsevier BV
ISSN 0169-1368
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Citation counts: TR Web of Science Citation Count  Cited 3 times in Thomson Reuters Web of Science Article | Citations
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