An overview of the behaviour of iron ore fines cargoes, and some recommended solutions for the reduction of shifting incidents during marine transportation

Mohajerani, A, Dean, J and Munro, M 2019, 'An overview of the behaviour of iron ore fines cargoes, and some recommended solutions for the reduction of shifting incidents during marine transportation', Ocean Engineering, vol. 182, pp. 451-474.


Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

Title An overview of the behaviour of iron ore fines cargoes, and some recommended solutions for the reduction of shifting incidents during marine transportation
Author(s) Mohajerani, A
Dean, J
Munro, M
Year 2019
Journal name Ocean Engineering
Volume number 182
Start page 451
End page 474
Total pages 24
Publisher Elsevier
Abstract Iron Ore Fines (IOF), which is a bulk mineral cargo, exhibits an inherent high level of risk during marine transportation due to its potential to liquefy. With nine marine accidents since 2007 being directly linked to the shifting of IOF cargoes, which resulted in the deaths of twenty-nine seafarers, the danger for shippers is indisputable. This study aims to review the behaviour of IOF during marine transportation, by analysing the factors that lead to geotechnical related failures. It suggests that due to suffusion caused by the dynamic motions of the vessel, the top layer of a cargo of IOF may end up containing a large percentage of fine-grained particles. This would seemingly result in a weak zone near the surface, with the possibility of being fully saturated, and, therefore, increasing the potential for liquefaction or reducing the factor of safety against a slope type failure. The study will also analyse and discuss the reasons behind the past and recent listing and capsizing incidents involving bulk mineral carriers. The final outcome of this study will be the proposal of some possible solutions that may be implemented and recommendations for further studies, in order to reduce the likelihood of cargo shift occurring.
Subject Civil Geotechnical Engineering
Keyword(s) Iron Ore Fines (IOF)
Bulk carrier
Cargo shift
Liquefaction
Slope failure
Cargo sloshing
DOI - identifier 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2019.04.073
Copyright notice © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ISSN 0029-8018
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