PC 12 pheochromocytoma cell response to super high frequency terahertz radiation from synchrotron source

Perera, P, Appadoo, D, Cheeseman, S, Wandiyanto, J, Linklater, D, Dekiwadia, C, Truong, V, Tobin, M, Vongsvivut, J, Bazaka, O, Bazaka, K, Croft, R, Crawford, R and Ivanova, E 2019, 'PC 12 pheochromocytoma cell response to super high frequency terahertz radiation from synchrotron source', Cancers, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 1-17.

Document type: Journal Article
Collection: Journal Articles

Title PC 12 pheochromocytoma cell response to super high frequency terahertz radiation from synchrotron source
Author(s) Perera, P
Appadoo, D
Cheeseman, S
Wandiyanto, J
Linklater, D
Dekiwadia, C
Truong, V
Tobin, M
Vongsvivut, J
Bazaka, O
Bazaka, K
Croft, R
Crawford, R
Ivanova, E
Year 2019
Journal name Cancers
Volume number 11
Issue number 2
Start page 1
End page 17
Total pages 17
Publisher MDPIAG
Abstract High frequency (HF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been widely used in many wireless communication devices, yet within the terahertz (THz) range, their effects on biological systems are poorly understood. In this study, electromagnetic radiation in the range of 0.319.5 × 10 12 Hz, generated using a synchrotron light source, was used to investigate the response of PC 12 neuron-like pheochromocytoma cells to THz irradiation. The PC 12 cells remained viable and physiologically healthy, as confirmed by a panel of biological assays; however, exposure to THz radiation for 10 min at 25.2 ± 0.4 ◦ C was sufficient to induce a temporary increase in their cell membrane permeability. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed cell membrane permeabilization via visualisation of the translocation of silica nanospheres (d = 23.5 ± 0.2 nm) and their clusters (d = 63 nm) into the PC 12 cells. Analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed the formation of atypically large (up to 1 µm) blebs on the surface of PC 12 cells when exposed to THz radiation. Long-term analysis showed no substantial differences in metabolic activity between the PC 12 cells exposed to THz radiation and untreated cells; however, a higher population of the THz-treated PC 12 cells responded to the nerve growth factor (NGF) by extending longer neurites (up to 020 µm) compared to the untreated PC12 cells (up to 20 µm). These findings present implications for the development of nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery and gene therapy strategies since THz irradiation can promote nanoparticle uptake by cells without causing apoptosis, necrosis or physiological damage, as well as provide a deeper fundamental insight into the biological effects of environmental exposure of cells to electromagnetic radiation of super high frequencies.
Subject Biological Physics
Keyword(s) Cell viability
PC 12 neuronal cells
Super high frequency electromagnetic radiation
Terahertz exposure
DOI - identifier 10.3390/cancers11020162
Copyright notice © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license 4.0
ISSN 2072-6694
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