Optimisation of active microstrip patch antennas

Jacmenovic, D 2004, Optimisation of active microstrip patch antennas, Masters by Research, Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University.


Document type: Thesis
Collection: Theses

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Jacmenovic.pdf Thesis application/pdf 2.95MB
Title Optimisation of active microstrip patch antennas
Author(s) Jacmenovic, D
Year 2004
Abstract This thesis presents a study of impedance optimisation of active microstrip patch antennas to multiple frequency points. A single layered aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna has been optimised to match the source reflection coefficient of a transistor in designing an active antenna. The active aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna was optimised to satisfy Global Positioning System (GPS) frequency specifications.

A rudimentary aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna consists of a rectangular antenna element etched on the top surface of two dielectric substrates. The substrates are separated by a ground plane and a microstrip feed is etched on the bottom surface. A rectangular aperture in the ground plane provides coupling between the feed and the antenna element. This type of antenna, which conveniently isolates any circuit at the feed from the antenna element, is suitable for integrated circuit design and is simple to fabricate. An active antenna design directly couples an antenna to an active device, therefore saving real estate and power. This thesis focuses on designing an aperture coupled patch antenna directly coupled to a low noise amplifier as part of the front end of a GPS receiver.

In this work an in-house software package, dubbed ACP by its creator Dr Rod Waterhouse, for calculating aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna performance parameters was linked to HP-EEsof, a microwave computer aided design and simulation package by Hewlett-Packard. An ANSI C module in HP-EEsof was written to bind the two packages. This process affords the client the benefit of powerful analysis tools offered in HP-EEsof and the fast analysis of ACP for seamless system design. Moreover, the optimisation algorithms in HP-EEsof were employed to investigate which algorithms are best suited for optimising patch antennas. The active antenna design presented in this study evades an input matching network, which is accomplished by designing the antenna to represent the desired source termination of a transistor. It has been demonstrated that a dual-band microstrip patch antenna can be successfully designed to match the source reflection coefficient, avoiding the need to insert a matching network.

Maximum power transfer in electrical circuits is accomplished by matching the impedance between entities, which is generally acheived with the use of a matching network. Passive matching networks employed in amplifier design generally consist of discrete components up to the low GHz frequency range or distributed elements at greater frequencies. The source termination for a low noise amplifier will greatly influence its noise, gain and linearity which is controlled by designing a suitable input matching network.

Ten diverse search methods offered in HP-EEsof were used to optimise an active aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna. This study has shown that the algorithms based on the randomised search techniques and the Genetic algorithm provide the most robust performance. The optimisation results were used to design an active dual-band antenna.
Degree Masters by Research
Institution RMIT University
School, Department or Centre Electrical and Computer Engineering
Keyword(s) Genetic algorithms
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