Photolithographic and replication techniques for nanofabrication and photonics

Kostovski, G 2008, Photolithographic and replication techniques for nanofabrication and photonics, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University.

Document type: Thesis
Collection: Theses

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Title Photolithographic and replication techniques for nanofabrication and photonics
Author(s) Kostovski, G
Year 2008
Abstract In the pursuit of economical and rapid fabrication solutions on the micro and nano scale, polymer replication has proven itself to be a formidable technique, which despite zealous development by the research community, remains full of promise. This thesis explores the potential of elastomers in what is a distinctly multidisciplinary field. The focus is on developing innovative fabrication solutions for planar photonic devices and for nanoscale devices in general. Innovations are derived from treatments of master structures, imprintable substrates and device applications. Major contributions made by this work include fully replicated planar integrated optical devices, nanoscale applications for photolithographic standing wave corrugations (SWC), and a biologically templated, optical fiber based, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor. The planar devices take the form of dielectric rib waveguides which for the first time, have been integrated with long-period gratings by replication. The heretofore unemployed SWC is used to demonstrate two innovations. The first is a novel demonstration of elastomeric sidewall photolithographic mask, which exploits the capacity of elastomers to cast undercut structures. The second demonstrates that the corrugations themselves in the absence of elastomers, can be employed as shadow masks in a directional flux to produce vertical stacks of straight lines and circles of nanowires and nanoribbons. The thesis then closes by conceptually combining the preceding demonstrations of waveguides and nanostructures. An optical fiber endface is em ployed for the first time as a substrate for patterning by replication, wherein the pattern is a nanostructure derived from a biological template. This replicated nanostructure is used to impart a SERS capability to the optical fiber, demonstrating an ultra-sensitive, integrated photonic device realized at great economy of both time and money, with very real potential for mass fabrication.
Degree Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Institution RMIT University
School, Department or Centre Electrical and Computer Engineering
Keyword(s) Nanofabrication
Nanoimprint lithography
Standing wave corrugations
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering
Optical fibre
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