Role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 in fatty acid-induced insulin resistance

Pinnamaneni, S 2006, Role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 in fatty acid-induced insulin resistance, Masters by Research, Medical Sciences, RMIT University.

Document type: Thesis
Collection: Theses

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Title Role of stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 in fatty acid-induced insulin resistance
Author(s) Pinnamaneni, S
Year 2006
Abstract Recent investigations suggest that reducing stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) 1 expression confers protection against obesity and insulin resistance, whereas others show that increasing SCD1 expression protects cells from lipotoxicity. The overall aim of this thesis was to establish the role of SCD1 expression in fatty acid metabolism and insulin stimulated glucose disposal in skeletal muscle.

In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to investigate the relationship between fatty acid subtype, SCD1 expression and fuel metabolism. The role of fatty acid subtype on fatty acid metabolite accumulation and insulin resistance was initially examined in rats. Rats were provided with a low fat diet or a high fat diet consisting of predominantly saturated (SAT) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Rats fed a SAT diet were insulin resistant and had increased skeletal muscle diacylglycerol content whereas rats fed a PUFA diet retained insulin sensitivity and accumulated triacylglycerol rather than diacylglycerol. Interestingly, SCD1 mRNA and protein content were elevated in SAT rats compared with PUFA fed and control fed rats, indicating a possible involvement of SCD1 in the aetiology of insulin resistance. Subsequently, SCD1 expression was examined in the skeletal muscle of various rodent models of genetic and diet-induced obesity. SCD1 content was consistently upregulated in the skeletal muscle of obese rodents.

To determine whether SCD1 contributes to or protects from fatty-acid induced insulin resistance, SCD1 levels were transiently altered in L6 skeletal muscle myotubes. Short interfering (si) RNA was used to decrease SCD1 content and a pcDNA3.1/HygromSCD1 vector was introduced to increase SCD1 content. Reducing SCD1 protein resulted in marked esterification of exogenous fatty acids into diacylglycerol and ceramide. Insulin-stimulated Akt (acute transforming retrovirus thymoma) phosphorylation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake were reduced with SCD1 siRNA. Exposure of L6 myotubes to palmitate abolished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both control and SCD1 siRNA myotubes. Transient overexpression of SCD1 resulted in triacylglycerol esterification but attenuated ceramide and diacylglycerol accumulation and protected myotubes from fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Further, these changes were associated with reduced phosphorylation of c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase (JNK) and the inhibitor of IêB kinase (IKK), both of which impair insulin signalling. These studies indicated that SCD1 protects from cellular toxicity in L6 myotubes by preventing excessive accumulation of bioactive lipid metabolites. Collectively, these experiments indicate that increasing SCD1 expression may be a protective mechanism designed to prevent insulin resistance in obese phenotypes.
Degree Masters by Research
Institution RMIT University
School, Department or Centre Medical Sciences
Keyword(s) Non-insulin-dependent diabetes
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Created: Fri, 28 Jan 2011, 09:28:16 EST
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