The added value of a cooperative education program

Weisz, M 2001, The added value of a cooperative education program, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Management, RMIT University.


Document type: Thesis
Collection: Theses

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Title The added value of a cooperative education program
Author(s) Weisz, M
Year 2001
Abstract Co-operative education (co-op) is a form of work-integrated-learning that involves university undergraduate students undertaking full-time paid and discipline-related employment as a structured part of their program of study. Co-op programs provide learning opportunities for students that enable them to integrate their work and their academic experiences. Such opportunities, provided that a number of conditions are met, can lead to deep level learning. Deep level learning results when students engage in and interact with the material that they are learning so that the material is integrated into their knowledge and personal understanding. Whether or not deep level learning occurs through co-op, depends on various factors including the learning opportunities provided by co-op employers, the students' own commitment and ability to learn, and the commitment of university staff to support this learning. Insufficient resourcing of co-op programs by universities and ultimately the government places a major constraint on the programs' potential effectiveness in bringing about the desired learning outcomes for students. This is particularly the case in Australia where universities are under enormous pressure of reduced government funding and the long-term sustainability of co-op programs is under threat.

In order to justify more funding for co-op programs, it is important to identify and measure the outcomes associated with undertaking co-op. There has been a great deal written about the outcomes of co-op programs and the associated benefits that accrue to the major co-op stakeholders; students, graduates, universities and employers. Most of the measurement of these outcomes has, however, taken place in North America. Furthermore, studies have generally focused on the outcomes for one, or sometimes two, stakeholder groups. The results of many of these studies have been limited by confounding variables and have been very mixed; with some providing evidence that supports co-op and others providing evidence that does not. Little work has been done to estimate the costs associated with running co-op programs.

This thesis considered the research question of what is the added value of a cooperative education program. A positivistic paradigm was adopted and empirical measures of learning and employment outcomes were analyzed for co-op compared to non co-op students and graduates. The graduates taking part in the study were matched in an effort to overcome some of the methodological limitations of other studies. The majority of the graduates had completed an Economics, Finance or Commerce degree at one of two major universities located in Melbourne, Australia: one university provides a compulsory co-op program, the other does not.

Through the analysis of the learning outcomes of co-op, this study found that co-op led to a reduction in the proportion of students adopting a surface approach to learning. The shift from students adopting a surface approach to students adopting a deep approach to learning as a result of co-op, was not evidenced as strongly as expected. This may have resulted in part, from the lack of funding necessary to provide the level of learning support required to bring about these learning outcomes. There is, however, evidence to suggest that co-op has a significant impact on the academic performance of students and particularly for those whose academic performance pre co-op was low.

When employment outcomes for co-op graduates and non co-op graduates were analyzed, it was evident that 90% of co-op graduates, compared to only 19% of non co-op graduates, found discipline-related employment within one month of actively seeking a job. Furthermore, co-op graduates took an average of two weeks to find employment whereas non co-op graduates, with no undergraduate discipline-related work experience, took an average of three-and-a-half months.

There is evidence that employers recognized, through increased salaries, the benefit of the co-op year over and above the experience that can be gained from summer placements, traineeships and post co-op discipline-related work. While the starting salary for co-op graduates, was significantly higher than for non co-op graduates, this difference disappeared when both cohorts had the same number of years of industry experience. Even though this result, which is consistent with other studies, appeared not to demonstrate the increased salary advantages associated with co-op, there is another factor that needed to be taken into consideration. The co-op graduates in this study had a range of academic achievements yet their graduate employment outcomes were at least the same as those for the non co-op graduates who were all high academic achievers.

The impact that co-op has on the achievement of relevant strategic goals and key performance indicators specified by the co-op university was considered and an estimation was also undertaken of the cost of providing this co-op program over and above the government funding received for its support.

It was found that while the co-op program attracted students with the same university entry score as the non co-op program, the non co-op graduates would, with hindsight, have chosen a co-op degree. This suggests that the pool of quality students applying for entry into the university offering co-op programs could be increased with more effective marketing of co-op to secondary school-leavers. Academic progression rates and retention rates, two university key performance indicators, were high for co-op students and co-op was a significant factor in achieving the university objective of graduate employability.

While co-op has had a significant impact on the achievement of relevant university goals, it was also found that the university that offers co-op incurs a funding shortfall of approximately $1,300 for every Economics and Finance co-op student. This amounted to a total funding shortfall of $41,600 for the 32 co-op students included in this study. One option that is available to the university to find support for the long-term financial sustainability of co-op programs is to seek a share of the significant cost savings experienced by the two other major stakeholders in a co-op program - the government and the employers of co-op graduates.

The estimated savings in graduate recruitment costs as a result of co-op students returning to companies as graduate recruits varied from $1,100 to $3,000 per graduate. This resulted in a total saving of between $19,000 and $51,000 for the 17 Economics and Finance students in this study who returned to their co-op companies as graduate recruits. The impact of co-op on social welfare payments made by the government was also quite significant. It was estimated that co-op led to savings of approximately $15,000 in social welfare payments for every co-op graduate - the total social welfare payments made to all the non co-op graduates being $147,000 higher than the total social welfare payments paid to the co-op graduates included in this study. To achieve these benefits of co-op, the government funds co-op programs at a rate of $1,800 per student.

For the 800 RMIT Business students who currently undertake co-op each year, the funding shortfall experienced by RMIT was extrapolated to be $1.04m. The associated saving to graduate employers was estimated to be between $500,000 and $1.37m and the expected saving to the government in social welfare payments was estimated to be over $4m while the total funding of co-op programs for the 800 students by the government was $1.44m. These figures provide a strong case for an increase in the financial support of co-op programs.

In conclusion, while there is a need to extend the research into the added benefits of a cooperative education program to a longitudinal study also covering other discipline areas, there is evidence to show that improved academic and employment outcomes occur for co-op graduates compared to non co-op graduates. There is also evidence of significant cost savings that accrue to the Australian Federal Government and to graduate employers as a result of co-op. If these data can be used to transfer resources to the universities that provide these programs then greater efforts can be made to direct the resources in a way that will further enhance the learning and the employment outcomes for co-op graduates.
Degree Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Institution RMIT University
School, Department or Centre Management
Keyword(s) Education, Cooperative -- Case studies
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