Virtual rehabilitation of upper-limb function in traumatic brain injury: A mixed-approach evaluation of the elements system

Wilson, P, Mumford, N, Duckworth, J, Thomas, P, Shum, D and Williams, G 2011, 'Virtual rehabilitation of upper-limb function in traumatic brain injury: A mixed-approach evaluation of the elements system', in Daniel Thalmann, Robert Riener, Gery Colombo, Kynan Eng (ed.) Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Virtual Rehabilitation, Zurich, Switzerland, 27-29 June 2011, pp. 308-315.


Document type: Conference Paper
Collection: Conference Papers

Title Virtual rehabilitation of upper-limb function in traumatic brain injury: A mixed-approach evaluation of the elements system
Author(s) Wilson, P
Mumford, N
Duckworth, J
Thomas, P
Shum, D
Williams, G
Year 2011
Conference name ICVR 2011
Conference location Zurich, Switzerland
Conference dates 27-29 June 2011
Proceedings title Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Virtual Rehabilitation
Editor(s) Daniel Thalmann, Robert Riener, Gery Colombo, Kynan Eng
Publisher IEEE
Place of publication United States
Start page 308
End page 315
Total pages 8
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the Elements virtual reality (VR) system for rehabilitation of upper-limb function in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). A mixed-approach design was used. Performance was evaluated at three time points using a within-group design: Preintervention 1 and 2, conducted 4 weeks apart, and Postintervention. Subjective ratings were provided after patients completed exploratory tasks. The intervention consisted of 12 1- hour training sessions over 4 weeks in addition to conventional physical therapy. Nine patients aged 18-48 years with severe TBI were recruited. The Elements system is comprised of a 40-inch tabletop LCD, camera tracking system, tangible user interfaces (i.e., graspable objects), and software. The system provided two modes of interaction with augmented feedback: goal-directed and exploratory. Upper-limb performance was assessed using systemrated measures (movement speed, accuracy, & efficiency), and standardised tests. Planned comparisons revealed little change in performance over the pretest period apart from an increase in movement speed. Significant training effects, with large effect sizes were shown on most measures. Subjective data revealed high levels of presence (inc. user involvement/control) and user satisfaction for the exploratory tasks. These findings support an earlier case study evaluation of the Elements system, further demonstrating that VR training is a viable adjunct in movement rehabilitation of TBI.
Subjects Digital and Interaction Design
Rehabilitation and Therapy (excl. Physiotherapy)
Keyword(s) Augmented feedback
Camera tracking
Effect size
Movement speed
Subjective rating
Tangible user interfaces
Time points
Training effects
Training sessions
Traumatic Brain Injuries
Upper limbs
Upper-limb function
User involvement
User satisfaction
Virtual rehabilitation
DOI - identifier 10.1109/ICVR.2011.5971868
Copyright notice © 2011 IEEE
ISBN 9781612844749
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