Baking enzymes and microencapsulation strategies for retardation of staling

Kaur, H 2008, Baking enzymes and microencapsulation strategies for retardation of staling, Masters by Research, Applied Sciences, RMIT University.


Document type: Thesis
Collection: Theses

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Title Baking enzymes and microencapsulation strategies for retardation of staling
Author(s) Kaur, H
Year 2008
Abstract The staling of baked products remains a significant cause of economic loss due to the loss of enjoyment seen as crumb firming occurs. The aims of the current project have been to investigate the stability of amylases in bakery formulations. In addition, the impact of partial hydrolysis products of starch on staling is investigated.

Specific assays were used to measure α-amylase and β-amylase, in the presence of the other potentially interfering activity. α-amylase activity levels appeared to gradually increase during the proofing stages and then to decline upon heating of the dough. However, the activity remaining in the final baked loaf was readily measurable indicating that not all of the enzyme had been inactivated. Free and total β-amylase activities were also measured and most was found to be in the free form. β-Amylase was unstable with only relatively low activities remaining in the final baked loaf. It appears that of the two amylolytic enzymes, α -amylase is sufficiently stable that it may exert some impact on the crumb characteristics in the freshly baked product and during subsequent storage.

In order to assess the likelihood that amylolysis is of significance to crumb characteristics, HPLC was used to analyse aqueous extracts for sugars. Commercial flours were found to contain low levels of sugars with maltose being the predominant sugar present. A number of commercial breads were also analysed and the composition found to vary between the different samples. Typically maltose was present at higher levels than the other sugars. When experimental loaves were analysed, the patterns showed that other sugars declined during proofing whereas maltose remained at readily measurable levels. Upon baking and subsequent storage the amounts of maltose increased. These results are consistent with the findings that some amylolytic activity remains in the baked product.

In the third phase of this study, a potential means of investigating the role of particular carbohydrates in product textures and staling rates was examined. The approach of spray drying was used to prepare microencapsulated maltodextrin. The encapsulating agents used were based upon rice starch and guar galactomannan. When these microcapsules were incorporated into the breadmaking formulation and baked, it appeared that softer crumb characteristics were achieved. The data also indicates an effect of delay in the staling rates. In a preliminary evaluation of the potential of two X-ray scattering methods, it was found that both techniques appear useful. The differences seen for samples of bread crumb analysed at various stages of storage did not show large differences in the intensity patterns. Of the two approaches, small angle analysis (SAXS) appears to show greater potential for application in ongoing studies of staling.

In conclusion, cereal grain α-amylase may be more stable during breadmaking than previously thought. There appears to be an increase in the level of some low molecular weight sugars in the final, baked product. Microencapsulation may offer a useful technique for the study of the role of specific carbohydrates during baking and storage of breads.
Degree Masters by Research
Institution RMIT University
School, Department or Centre Applied Sciences
Keyword(s) Baked products -- Composition
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